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Gram Brick Works (Miocene of Denmark)

Also known as Gram Clay Pit

Where: Jutland, Denmark (55.3° N, 9.1° E: paleocoordinates 55.6° N, 8.1° E)

• coordinate based on nearby landmark

• outcrop-level geographic resolution

When: Gram Formation, Tortonian (11.6 - 7.2 Ma)

• Tortonian-basal Pliocene, from the middle part of the typical Gram clay (20 m in the type locality section where it was divided into five faunal assemblage zones by Rasmussen (1966))

•conformably overlies the Hodde Fm (Serravallian) and is unconformably overlain by Quaternary deposits (AH, based on Roth and Hoedemakers 2005)

•The uppermost portion of the Gram Formation correlates with foraminiferal zone N17 (8.6–5.7 Ma [20, 54]) [208] and – within the clay pit –North Sea foraminiferal zone NSB 13b [209] and dinoflagellate zone D19b (8.7–7.5 Ma [54]), as judged from the last appearance of Spiniferites pseudofurcatus [208, 210]. Together, these dates imply a late Tortonian age (8.6–7.5 Ma). (Marx & Fordyce, 2015)

•Gram Formation, Late Miocene [15]: based on the composition of associated mollusc fauna, the specimen can be accurately identified as belonging to layer 3 or 4 of the Gram Clay Formation [15,16] which are dated to mid-Torto- nian, ca. 9.9–8 mya according to a combined study of geomagnetic variation, dinoflagellates and malacofauna [16–18]. (Gol'din & Steeman, 2015).

• group of beds-level stratigraphic resolution

Environment/lithology: marine; poorly lithified, micaceous, silty claystone

• The Gram Formation was deposited in a marine environment at a depth between 50 and 100 m, as indicated by the marine flora associated with terrestrial material, foraminifera and the marine fauna (Rasmussen, 1958, 1966; Laursen & Kristofferson, 1999; Dybkjær & Piasecki, 2010). Fine-grained storm beds similar to the extant coastal layers in the North Sea suggest a progradation of the shoreline (Rasmussen, 2005).

•The fauna is typical of a coastal environment with 128 mollusc species and six decapod species (Fraaije, Hansen & Hansen, 2005; Schnetler, 2005). They are associated with shark remains, among others the predator Carcharocles megalodon (Bendix-Almgreen, 1983). Cetaceans are also represented by at least two baleen whale species, Uranocetus gramensis (Stee- man, 2009) and Tranatocetus argillarius (Roth, 1978; Gol’din & Steeman, 2015) and a delphinoid species (Hoch, 2004).

• SPECIFIC LITHOLOGY: Silty, dark, micaceous clay. LITHIFICATION: Poorly-lithified, on the basis of figured specimens. (AH)

Size classes: macrofossils, mesofossils

Collection methods: surface (in situ),

• This was originally reported in Bendix-Almgreen and Roth, 1976, but that reference could not be located in any citation search engines.

Primary reference: F. Roth. 1978. Mesocetus argillarius sp.n. (Cetacea, Mysticeti) from Upper Miocene of Denmark, with remarks on the lower jaw and echolocation system in whale phylogeny. Zoologica Scripta 7:63-79 [J. Alroy/E. Leckey/E. Leckey] more details

Purpose of describing collection: taxonomic analysis

PaleoDB collection 34521: authorized by John Alroy, entered by Erin Leckey on 04.09.2003, edited by Mark Uhen

Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)