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Pliohippus pernix Marsh 1874 (horse)

Mammalia - Perissodactyla - Equidae

PaleoDB taxon number: 50550

Alternative combinations: Hippidium pernix, Pliohippus (Pliohippus) pernix, Protohippus pernix

Synonyms: Hippidium robustus Marsh 1874 (no. 47023), Pliohippus (Pliohippus) lullianus Troxell 1916 (no. 361221), Pliohippus (Pliohippus) robustus Marsh 1874 (no. 361218), Pliohippus lullianus Troxell 1916 (no. 50542), Pliohippus robustus Marsh 1874 (no. 50554), Protohippus robustus Marsh 1874 (no. 51033)

Full reference: O. C. Marsh. 1874. Notice of new equine mammals from the Tertiary formation. American Journal of Science 7(39):247-258

Belongs to Pliohippus according to B. J. MacFadden 1998

Sister taxa: Pliohippus (Pliohippus), Pliohippus bakeri, Pliohippus coalingensis, Pliohippus fossulatus, Pliohippus mirabilis, Pliohippus nobilis, Pliohippus potosinus, Pliohippus spectans, Pliohippus tantalus, Pliohippus tehonensis

Type specimens:

  • Pliohippus pernix: YPM 13007, a partial skeleton (portions of a skull, jaws, the right pes, part of the left tibire, and so on. Also the left manus, radius, ulna and humerus, and several vertebrre. The left sup).
  • Pliohippus lullianus: AMNH 17225, a partial skeleton (the skeleton of a young colt about ten months old. The milk teeth are all visible and some are slightly worn; the first permanent true molar is well formed and ). Its type locality is Oak Creek, which is in a Miocene terrestrial horizon in South Dakota.
  • Pliohippus robustus: YPM 13008, a partial skeleton (upper teeth, fragments of the skull, fore and hind feet, radius, humerus, etc.).

Ecology: ground dwelling browser

Average measurements (in mm): P3 26.1 x 26.5, P4 26.9 x 25.7, M1 23.5 x 24.6, m1 22.0 x 11.9