Where: Esmeraldas, Ecuador (0.9° N, 79.9° W: paleocoordinates 0.7° N, 79.1° W)
• coordinate estimated from map
• local area-level geographic resolution
When: Onzole Formation (Daule Group), Early/Lower Pliocene (5.3 - 3.6 Ma)
• LITHOSTRATIGRAPHY: From the Súa Member of the Onzole Fm of the Daule Group, which overlies the lower member of the Onzole Fm (Late Miocene) and the Angostura Fm (Late Miocewne). AGE: Early Pliocene in text. STRATIGRAPHIC POSITION: Composite list 50–70-cm-thick shellbed at the base of the Su ́a Member.
• bed-level stratigraphic resolution
Environment/lithology: coastal; burrowed, bioturbated, silty sandstone
Size class: macrofossils
• The bioclasts from the bulk sample show a high degree of fragmentation and include a huge number of shell fragments.
Preservation: original aragonite
Collection methods: bulk, surface (in situ), sieve,
• COLLECTOR: By the authors, although not specified. REPOSITORY: Not stated in text. METHODS: Bulk samples, amalgamated from multiple replicates (,30 dm3 each) were collected from different lateral spots of the same fossiliferous horizon, and manual picking at outcrop level, in order to obtain large and rare species. Bulk samples consist of poorly lithified sediments (i.e., affected by incipient cementation only, with rocks easily disintegrable with hydrogen peroxide) that were soaked in a strongly diluted H2O2 and water solution and later washed with fresh water, air dried, and gently sieved through 1 mm mesh screens. Slightly < 1900 fish otoliths were extracted from a 1000 kg cumulative bulk sample amalgamated from multiple replicates collected adjacently over the entire exposed length of the same horizon (lateral spacing between the sampling sites is 100 m or less). Bulk material was reduced to a reasonable size after processing with water, air drying, and sieving (smallest screen 0.5 mm) and otoliths were separated from the final residue by hand picking.
Primary reference: G. Carnevale, W. Landini, L. Radgaini, C. Celma, G. and Cantalamessa. 2011. Taphonomic and paleoecological analyses (mollusks and fishes) of the Súa Member condensed shelled, upper Onzole Formation (Early Pliocene, Ecuador). Palaios 26(3):160-172 [A. Hendy/A. Hendy/P. Holroyd] more details
Purpose of describing collection: paleoecologic analysis
PaleoDB collection 135043: authorized by Austin Hendy, entered by Austin Hendy on 20.10.2012
Creative Commons license: CC BY (attribution)