Gateway to the Paleobiology Database

Published time scales

1: Eons [Gradstein et al. 2004]
2: Eras [Gradstein et al. 2004]
2009 IUGS Cenozoic Periods [Gibbard et al. 2010]
3: Periods [Gradstein et al. 2004]
2: Periods [Harland et al. 1990]
Proterozoic Periods of Harland [Knoll et al. 2006]
4: Carboniferous Subperiods [Gradstein et al. 2004]
3: Cenozoic Subperiods [Harland et al. 1990]
Silurian Epochs [Cramer et al. 2011]
Cambrian Epochs [Erwin and Bowring 2004]
2009 IUGS Cenozoic Epochs [Gibbard et al. 2010]
Cambrian Epochs of Harland [Gradstein et al. 2004]
4: Epochs [Harland et al. 1990]
Ordovician Series [Webby 1998]
2009 IUGS Pleistocene Subepochs [Gibbard et al. 2010]
6: Cenozoic Subepochs [Gradstein et al. 2004]
5: Subepochs [Harland et al. 1990]
Cenozoic Stages [Berggren et al. 1995]
Cretaceous-Paleogene Boundary [Burckhardt and Ouvrard 2012]
Silurian Ages [Cramer et al. 2011]
2009 IUGS Cenozoic Ages [Gibbard et al. 2010]
Mesozoic Stages [Gradstein et al. 1995]
Cambrian of Siberia [Gradstein et al. 2004]
Vendian and Cambrian Stages [Harland et al. 1990]
Late Triassic Stages [Hüsing et al. 2011]
Permian Stages [Jin et al. 1997]
Mid-Cretaceous Stages [Klimaszewski 1998]
Proterozoic Stages of Harland [Knoll et al. 2006]
Late Triassic Stages [Lucas et al. 2012]
Triassic stages [Mundil et al. 2010]
Late Triassic Stages [Olsen et al. 2011]
Jurassic Stages [Palfy et al. 2000]
Pennsylvanian-Permian Stages [Roscher and Schneider 2006]
Carboniferous and Early Permian Stages [Schmitz and Davydov 2012]
Late Permian Ages [Shen et al. 2010]
Ordovician Stages [Wang et al. 2009]
Ordovician Stages [Webby 1998]
Ordovician Stages [Webby et al. 2004]
Emsian Substages [Becker et al. 2004]
Albian Substages [Fiet et al. 2001]
Mesozoic Substages [Gradstein et al. 1995]
Cambrian Substages [Harland et al. 1990]
Triassic subages [Hounslow and Muttoni 2010]
Aptian Substages [Huang et al. 2010]
Norian substages [Hüsing et al. 2011]
Carnian and Norian Substages [Olsen et al. 2011]
Callovian Substages [Palfy et al. 2000]
Late Devonian Substages [Sandberg et al. 2003]
You can use this form to view the published time scales we synthesize algorithmically to produce the website's master time scale. We employ the most recently published data to fix correlations and boundary estimates involving planes between pairs of time intervals. Boundary estimates given in the original sources are presented in the individual scales.